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xcviii Journal of the Anthropological Society. 

Marshall referred, in confirmation of that opinion, to Mr. Borrow 's 
work, The Gypsies in Spain, in which he described them as a distinct 
people with a distinct language. That language, which is quite dif- 
ferent from the Spanish, Mr. Borrow said is even spoken by the gyp- 
sies in England. Mr. Marshall also referred to the paper read at a 
former meeting of the Society by Mr. Hams on the Gallinas, in 
which several customs of that people were mentioned that were similar 
to those said by Mr. Borrow to pertain to the gypsies. 

Mr. Bollaert said he had often talked with Mr. Borrow on the 
subject, and that gentleman was of opinion that the gypsies in Spain 
were of Asiatic origin ; but nothing was positively known of it. The 
Spaniards call the language of the gypsies gerigouza and germania or 
gibberish. Mr. Borrow traced some Sanskrit words in it ; and it may 
be observed that wherever the gypsies settle, their language partakes 
more or less of the language of the country. 

Mr. C. H. Chambers thought that the gypsies of Spain came, pro- 
bably, directly from Hungary, but that they might have come from 
India originally. In the fifteenth century, they were spoken of as 
coming from the Slavonian part of Europe. He inquired whether the 
gypsies in Spain live in villages, as they do in Hungary, or whether 
they live in camps 1 

Dr. Seemann observed that the gypsies were to be seen in perfec- 
tion in Hungary and Bohemia, where there were whole villages of 
them. When they travelled, they came into towns in waggons of a 
peculiar construction. They were excellent musicians ; and, though 
they do not know musical notes, they will play any tune after hearing- 
it once or twice. 

Mr. Beavan, in replying to the remarks on his paper, observed that 
the want of literature was the greatest drawback in Spain. There 
were few places where books could be purchased; and in many a 
large town there was only one shop where any books could be ob- 
tained. The principal books the Spaniards read were French novels. 
The reading of them was a favourite amusement, but of their own 
authors they knew nothing whatever. With regard to the gypsies, 
their language was entirely different from the Spanish, but they could 
most of them speak Spanish. In Spain they did not live under hedges 
nor in villages, but they lived by themselves in towns. It was their 
practice to hire a small hovel, and live together in it in a miserable 
way ; and then they proceeded to another town, and did the same. 
They were seen in the greatest numbers in Granada, where they 
gained their livelihood by playing music and exhibiting their dances, 
assisted occasionally by fortune-telling. 

Mr. Bollaert then read the following communication from Dr. 
Hyde Clarke, — On Anthropological Investigations in Smyrna. 

In accepting the local secretaryship in Smyrna, which the Council 
has conferred upon me, it may be useful to report on the field of in- 
vestigation in this district. It abounds, indeed, in examples of phe- 
nomena connected with the prehistorical and historical period. 

Monuments. Our caverns have not been investigated. Within 



Clarice on Anthropological Investigations in Smyrna. xcix 

the last two years, some remarkable caverns in limestone have been 
found near Ephesus. I have strong reason to believe they are bone 
caverns, but I have not been able to obtain any investigation. I 
would strongly recommend this subject to some Fellow of the Society 
travelling in these parts. A fable, extensively credited by persons 
who ought to know better, and to be found in print, is, that in the 
mountains where these are found is a subterranean city, of which the 
entrance is near Kosboonar. 

Cyclopean Cities. In these we are very rich. Within a short 
distance we have Smyrna, Tantalus, Sipylus, and Negrophaeum ; 
showing that in the prehistoric period large cities were thickly clus- 
tered. Ephesus and Samos are fine examples. I attribute the Cy- 
clopean class to the Iberian inhabitants of Southern Europe. I have 
discussed the pre-Hellenic inhabitants of Asia Minor, and assigned 
them to the Iberians, in a paper before the Academy of Anatolia, and 
the Ethnological Society, briefly communicated to the British Associa- 
tion at Bath. This portion of W. Von Humboldt's researches is well 
worth}' of prosecution. A list is wanted of Cyclopcean cities. 

Hock-cut Momiments. Asia Minor is rich in these, of which we 
have some in this neighbourhood. The Sesostris must be taken out 
of the class of Egyptian monuments. I have been for some time en- 
gaged on this subject, and have succeeded in obtaining the concurrent 
opinions of competent authorities, that this sculpture belongs to a 
class allied to Assyrian. It is probably of still greater antiquity. I 
hope soon to obtain photographs of the Sesostris, and the Niobe or 
Cybele. The other monument referred to by Herodotus will, I expect, 
be found on the well cliffs between Kosboonar and Ephesus. These 
require close examination. 

Tombs of various kinds have been found, but have not been ade- 
quately investigated. No skulls have been secured. Many problems 
as to race may obtain solution from such remains. 

Kitclien-Middens or Shell-Mounds. None are known, but must 
exist. I have pointed out the oyster-beds on Mount Pagus, the Ceedle 
Hill at Smyrna, formerly supposed to be fossil, as belonging to this 
class. A short description will be found in last year's Atliencmm. 
This subject requires further investigation. I trust soon to send spe- 
cimens to the Society. 

Comparative Anthropology. At the present moment we have re- 
mains of many races, and in ancient epochs they were also various. 
The rajah Greeks I consider to be representatives of the Iberian and 
pre-Heilemc inhabitants. The Hellenic Greeks are supposed by Fall- 
merayer, Pinlay, and myself to be of Albanian and Slavonian descent, 
and that the Hellenic element was extinguished many centuries ago. 

The Armenians are numerous. These are a most interesting people. 
It is desirable to investigate their relations to the Georgians, and how- 
far the fabulous Armenian history has any real basis of truth in con- 
nection with the early empires of Persia. I have been paying some 
attention to this matter in connection with my researches in the 
identification of the Caucasian tribes and the Tibetans, in support of 

h,2 



c Journal of the Anthropological Society. 

Mr. B. H. Hodgson's researches. The Koords penetrate into these 
provinces. The same questions arise with regard to them. 

My present view is, that the Armenians, the Koords, and the 
Albanians or Arnaouts, are the three earliest Indo-European races 
that descended from the main seat of the family, and that the pheno- 
mena of their roots and grammar are to be sought partly in Kaukaso- 
Tibetan influences. 

I may observe, parenthetically, that I assign the same influences 
as operating on the Ossetinians or Trim, and explaining its apparent 
anomalies, and conciliating the discoveries of Mr. B. H. Hodgson. I 
consequently doubt how far the Ossetes may be Indo-European, and 
whether a Kaukaso-Tibetan race may not have accepted an Indo- 
European language. The Kaukaso-Tibetan influence in Western Asia 
is an element to be investigated. It is possible that it affects the 
Lycian question, and the third arrow-headed. I have not been able 
sufficiently to examine these points. 

This country of Anatolia is the main seat of the Ottoman Turks. 
The ethnological difference between the Osmanli and Turkoman is very 
great, and cannot be accounted for by the hypothesis of Circassian 
and Georgian intermixtures. On the question of the supposed extinc- 
tion of the Osmanli, I have communicated a paper lately to the Statis- 
tical Society, in which I express doubts as to the fact, and give some 
evidence for showing that the supposed extraordinary increase of the 
Christians is a fallacy, and that for three centuries the local Christian 
and Jewish populations have been stationary. 

The Turkomans, Yuruks, and other wandering and hill tribes, are 
well deserving of investigation. They are called Kizzilbashes or 
Shiites, like the Persians ; but their Mussulmanism is mixed up with 
peculiar institutions, bearing a semblance to the modifications of Islam 
in Syria. They likewise partake of that prevalent idea among Mus- 
sulmans, that there is a connection between their institutions and 
freemasonry. They certainly hold private periodical assemblies, to 
which initiates only are admitted. 

There are many Negroes here, of whom evidence may be obtained 
as to Eastern and Central Africa. In the city of Aidin there is a 
woman of the tribe of Nyanyas, or ' men with tails', of the Nile, on 
whom I piiblished a paper in the Levant Quarterly Review, some years 
ago. Mr. W. Winwood Keade, one of your Council, has given some 
interesting accounts of the Nyanyas, in his book on Western Africa. 
I am now endeavouring to obtain a Nyanya vocabulary from this 
woman, that to be found in philological works being imperfect, and 
affording no elements for ethnological classification. If I succeed in 
this purpose, we shall identify the position of the Nyanyas, and perhaps 
solve an inquiry raised by Mr. W. W. Reade, and by residents on the 
west coast, as to the connection of the Nyanyas with that district. I 
hope in time to obtain a photograph of this woman, who is a fine type 
of the race. The difficulties I have had on this subject are a fair 
measure of those to be encountered in this country on very simple 
matters. I have now made four attempts lately to get the vocabulaiy, 
without effect. M. Ernest Kenan, the eminent orientalist, who speaks 



Clarke on A nthropological Investigations in Smyrna. ci 

Arabic, as does the woman, willingly undertook it for me ; but, on 
inquiry in Aidin, lie could not find her. It turned out afterwards, he 
passed her in her usual resort on leaving the city. The same thing 
happened a fortnight afterwards with another party. 

Many examples of mixed races are found here, particularly of 
Negro mulattoes and Levantines, or the mixture of Europeans with 
the natives of the country. The latter afford some most beautiful 
women in the first, and occasionally in the second, generation ; but 
there is undoubted evidence that neither of the mixed races is perma- 
nent. It is to be observed, that some of the Levantines pass into Greeks, 
as is naturally to be expiected from a preponderant Greek population. 
It is curious that, though the Levantine is a cross-breed chiefly among 
Indo-Europeans, the third and fourth generations produce many of 
the phenomena of Negro cross-breeds, as seen in the West Indies and 
South America. 

On the subject of mules, I may relate that well-informed persons 
believe that many mules of the ass and cow exist in this country ; and 
two cases have been named to me, which a friend is investigating. 
One of these alleged cow-mules is at Leidebein, eight miles distant, 
and we hope to obtain a photograph for transmission to Europe. The 
mule was in the city a fortnight ago, but we did not succeed. 

On the subject of the phenomenon discovered by Count Strzlecki 
in Tasmania, and termed by me foaling, I have obtained further evi- 
dence as to the fact reported by me to the count, namely, that in 
Spain and South America, when a he-mule touches a mare, she be- 
comes barren to a horse or an ass. In South America, a mule which 
has done this is immediately shot, as he may render a herd of mares 
barren. I have ascertained from muleteers here, that it is considered 
that the contact of a mule with a mare renders her barren. 

Upon hair, I may observe that light hair is much commoner 
among the Armenians, who have very black hair, than among the 
Greeks, with whom the black is not so intense ; I have seen negrolike 
hair among the Greeks, but have not identified "with which race of 
Greeks. 

Longevity. We have one alleged case of remarkable longevity in 
the Turkish quarter, of which I published a note in Notes and Queries, 
and which I have not got here for reference. Generally speaking, 
among the Turks there are not many cases of alleged centenarians. 

Plague. The plague has ceased within the memory of persons 
now living ; but there is no sufficient local cause, as many of the cities 
remain in the same condition. A subject deserving of investigation, 
is the occasional depopulation of villages by fever, arising, it is sup- 
posed, by a derivation of currents of air, as by cutting down forests, for 
instance, bringing miasma on a place formerly protected from it. 

Transportation of Language. This has taken place at various 
times within the historical period. The rayah Greeks generally speak 
Turkish ; the Armenians are acquiring a new literary Armenian lan- 
guage, displacing the Turko-Armeuian ; the Jews are abandoning 
Spanish for Italian. The Italian language, formerly the general polite 
language, is being displaced. 



cii Journal of the Anthropological Society, 

Dialects. The Levantine dialects of the European languages are 
deserving of attention. The Levantine-English or Levantine twang, 
about six years ago, was confined to about five hundred persons ; but 
the children of the many new comers get quickly affected by it. A 
child under ten years old will come under its influence in about three 
months. It consists of a twang, accentuations, and idioms, in reality 
based on the bad or Smyrno-Greek dialect. I may note, that I ob- 
served children lost it in about two months after arrival in England. 
The English in Ireland and America are commonly longer in acquir- 
ing the dialect ; and adult males resist better than adult females. 
The dialect of the neighbouring island of Mytlene, has been published, 
and I have ascertained from natives, that there is a distinct dialect in 
each village, which the people say cannot be understood by some of 
the neighbours. The number of dialects in that small island is by 
some reckoned at sixty. 

The gypsies here may be usefully investigated. On the dialect 
of the gypsies of Roumelia, Mr. Pospati of Constantinople has published 
a very valuable memoir, to which I contributed some notes, in the 
Levant Quarterly Revieio. 

Creolism. The effect of change of climate, so remarkable in the case 
of the English in North America and Australia, producing the physical 
effects known as Yankeeism, but which I have termed creolism, I have 
not noticed here. I have not observed that the children of European 
parentage on both sides, partake of any physical change in the nature 
of creolism ; but the field of observation is restricted, as the number 
of pure blood is very small. In American and Australian cases, I 
have known instances of the children of immigrants born in the 
country, being distinguished by Yankee features from the elder child- 
ren born in England. Some of the children of immigrants are not 
affected by creolism, but are wholly of English type. 

Such is the field for investigation, but the difficulties of compass- 
ing it are great. There is no public spirit, and no zeal. The whole 
number of scientific inquiries is small, and, like myself, closely en- 
gaged, and having no time to devote to systematic inquiry, A small 
academy we formed, under the name of the Academy of Anatolia, and 
of which I was the President, has dwindled since its first year ; the 
attempt to form a library has failed, after accumulating two thousand 
volumes ; and the efforts for museums have proved abortive. It is 
only by aid from without, from travellers or visitors, having time or 
means to bestow, that results will be gradually obtained. 

Thanks were voted to Dr. Hyde Clarke for this communication. 

The following communication from Mr. Baines was read by Mr. C. 
Carter Blake, which was accompanied by objects presented to the 
Museum illustrative of the matters referred to. 

On Certain Implements and Articles of Dress from South Africa. By 
T. Baines, Esq. 
I have much pleasure in presenting to you, as you were kind 
enough to tell me the Society would value it, a spear or arrow-head of